The Realme X2 Pro is a smartphone featuring a 90Hz OLED display, Snapdragron 855+, 50 watt charging and up to 12GB RAM. A flagship level spec sheet for a price around $450 USD. FOLLOW ME IN THESE PLACES FOR UPDATES Twitter - Facebook - Instagram -
Are we alone in the universe? Even if we could contact aliens, what would we say? How would we say it? And, most importantly, should we even be trying to make contact at all? This episode takes me on a journey to compose and send my own personal message into outer space. Available with YouTube Premium - . To see if Premium is available in your country, click here:
With the help of Cecile Sarabian, Dr. Andrew MacIntosh and some fake poop, Michael observes levels of disgust among Japanese Macaques.
How can a lie become true? In this episode, Dr. Aaron Blaisdell and I create a game show that is actually a giant “human Skinner Box” to observe the formation of superstitious beliefs. And Dr. Samuel Veissière helps me design and perform a placebo reverse exorcism, harnessing the power of belief in both science and religion to convince normal people that a spirit has possessed their bodies. Available with YouTube Premium - . To see if Premium is available in your country, click here:
In this episode I visit a researcher who is studying memory by using machine learning and neuroimaging to detect and predict people's brain states. I also travel to Japan to meet with a team working on ways to record the content of peoples’ dreams. Available with YouTube Premium - . To see if Premium is available in your country, click here:
If I could live forever, should I? How does being reminded of our own mortality affect us psychologically? In this episode I speak with mortician and death positivity activist Caitlin Doughty and visit a cryonics facility trying to extend human life indefinitely. Will I take them up on their offer, or will I choose to die? Available with YouTube Premium - . To see if Premium is available in your country, click here:
Normal people can become monsters given the right situation. That’s the standard narrative of the Stanford Prison Experiment, one of the most famous psychological experiments of all time. But what if the cause of its participants’ cruel behavior wasn’t what we’ve always been told?
There are 100 billion individual neurons in the human brain. Working together, they allow us to make sense of, and move through, the world around us. Scientists have built replicas of the human brain with computers, but no one has ever successfully made a brain out of humans. On this episode, I’ll travel back to my hometown of Stilwell, Kansas, and turn it into a working brain! Available with YouTube Premium - . To see if Premium is available in your country, click here:
Our brain has 86 billion neurons connected by 3 million kilometers of nerve fibers and The Human Brain Project is mapping it all. One of the key applications is neuromorphic computing - computers inspired by brain architecture that may one day be able to learn as we do. BloombergGiantLeap Science Technology -------- Like this video? Subscribe to Bloomberg on YouTube: Bloomberg is the First Word in business news, delivering breaking news & analysis, up-to-the-minute market data, features, profiles and more: Connect with us on. Twitter: Facebook: Instagram:
How are our moral decisions influenced by factors we’re not aware of? A phenomenon known as Moral Licensing claims that when we do something good, we often subconsciously allow ourselves to then do something bad. In this episode, I take a look at whether those who donate money to charity become more likely to let a kid take the blame for a crime they know they committed. Available with YouTube Premium - . To see if Premium is available in your country, click here:
Humans are the only Earthlings with complex language. But at what cost was that ability acquired? In this episode, I visit Tetsuro Matsuzawa to learn about his influential cognitive tradeoff hypothesis. Available with YouTube Premium - . To see if Premium is available in your country, click here:
NOTE TO VIEWERS: In Chicago, Verizon download speeds reached a maximum above one gigabit per second, and median speeds in South Korea exceeded those in the U.S. The video above incorrectly says Chicago speeds maxed out above one gigabyte per second, and represents the median speeds in megabytes instead of megabits. In the global race for 5G, U.S. telecom firms have a unique disadvantage: limited access to the “goldilocks” band of radio frequencies. That's pushing U.S. firms toward a less practical version of 5G. WSJ explains the science and its implications. Illustration by Carlos Waters / The Wall Street Journal More from the Wall Street Journal: Visit WSJ.com: Visit the WSJ Video Center: On Facebook: On Twitter: On Snapchat: WSJ 5G
Dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents and young adults (DBT) is a clinical program within the Young Adult and Family Center that targets high risk, multi-problem adolescents. We specialize in identifying and treating depression and risky behavior in adolescents, including self-injury, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, substance use, binging and purging, risky sexual behavior, physical fighting, and other forms of risk-taking. DBT has been adapted by Alec Miller and Jill Rathus from Marsha Linehan’s initial conceptualization of DBT, which was developed for adults diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. Our adaptation follows the work of Miller and Rathus, who originally modified DBT for use with teens. Our program targets five areas: Confusion about self Impulsivity Emotional instability Interpersonal problems Parent-teen problems The treatment has been shown to be effective in treating self-harming adolescents with depression who demonstrate some traits of borderline personality disorder that are beyond that expected of typical adolescent development. Depression in adolescence is characterized by depressed or irritable mood, changes in appetite and sleep, withdrawal from and loss of interest in usual activities and friends, feelings of hopelessness and worthlessness, agitation and/or fatigue, difficulty concentrating, difficulty making decisions, and suicidal ideation. Some traits of borderline personality disorder that may be of concern to teens and parents include: unstable sense of self, unstable interpersonal relationships, inappropriate or uncontrollable anger or other emotions, serious mood swings, recurrent self-harm or and/or suicide attempts, chronic feelings of emptiness, and impulsivity that puts the teen at risk. Teens and young adults referred to the DBT Program typically have many or all of the problems listed above, which can lead to difficulties fulfilling their obligations in school and at home. This perpetuates their negative ideas about themselves.
This video is one in a series that explains the diagnosis and treatment of sleep apnea. For more information, visit Like Harvard Medical School on Facebook: Follow on Twitter: Follow on Instagram: Follow on LinkedIn: Website:
This animation depicts the CRISPR-Cas9 method for genome editing – a powerful new technology with many applications in biomedical research, including the potential to treat human genetic disease. Feng Zhang, a leader in the development of this technology, is a faculty member at MIT, an investigator at the McGovern Institute for Brain Research, and a core member of the Broad Institute. Further information can be found on Prof. Zhang’s website at . Images and footage courtesy of Sputnik Animation, the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Justin Knight and pond5.
Mitochondrial disease affects 1 in 5,000 children. Learn more about the positive experience a Wooster, Ohio family has had in the treatment of mitochondrial disease for their two children at Cleveland Clinic Children's Hospital.
Repetitive wrist stress from computer use, factory work or hobbies can cause numbness and tingling in your hands and wrists. Watch this demonstration of three simple stretches and recommendations that can bring relief from Andrew Bang, DC.
Submit your real-time PCR questions at Just how does TaqMan work? Sr. Field Applications Specialist Doug Rains explores the specific mechanism by which TaqMan® achieves its unparalleled specificity and sensitivity. Around the world, researchers rely on TaqMan® for gene expression, SNP gentoyping , protein expression, pathogen detection and quantification, and more. For many years, TaqMan has been the gold-standard chemistry for real-time PCR. It's famed for its unparalleled specificity, sensitivity, and ease of use. So it's not surprising that users want to know what Shrikant at ICL College in India asked recently: namely, How does TaqMan work? I'm glad you asked. Just like any PCR, TaqMan-based reactions require a double-stranded template, as well as two fairly standard, target-specific primers. But unlike those used in regular PCR, TaqMan Assays require a third, sequence-specific oligo called a probe. TaqMan probes are quite different from the primers in two ways. First, they can't be extended by our friendly enzyme, Taq Polymerase, since they lack a free hydroxyl group. What's more, TaqMan probes are covalently joined to two other molecules. On the 5'-end, there's a fluorescent molecule known as the reporter -- called that because it reports signal to us as we generate more and more product. On the 3'-end is a molecule known as the quencher, which quenches the fluorescent signal from the reporter under certain circumstances. Let's see what those circumstances are. Here we're looking at an intact probe, with the reporter in green, the quencher in red. Normally, when we zap the probe with light, we expect the reporter to get excited and fluoresce. But because the quencher is in close proximity to the reporter, instead what happens is, the energy gets transferred from reporter to quencher. The transfer of energy is known as FRET, or Fluorescent Resonance Energy Transfer. The important thing to note here is that, as long as the probe remains intact, there is no permanent increase in fluorescent signal from the reporter. However, if the reporter and quencher are permanently separated during the reaction, and then light strikes the reaction, the Reporter does in fact fluoresce, producing signal the instrument can detect. The basic idea, then, is this: each time we create a new PCR amplicon, we want to permanently split the reporter and quencher. By doing so, florescence will always increase proportionally with product, allowing us to effectively monitor what's happening to our reactions throughout the run. Here it is in action. We begin our reactions (CLICK) by denaturing our template at a high temperature. As we lower the temperature, our probe and primers bind. Taq now comes in, finds the primers, and begins the extension phase of PCR by creating new complementary strands of DNA. But wait a second: there's a probe sitting in the way. It's a showdown in the making! What will the polymerase do? Stop in its tracks? Turn back in fear? Nay, friends, not Taq Polymerase. You see, our enzyme has what's referred to as exonuclease activity. Meaning? It pretty much eats DNA for lunch. So when Taq reaches the probe, it simply chews it to bits on its way to creating new amplicon. As a result, the reporter and quencher are physically separated, creating a permanent increase in fluorescence that, not coincidentally, perfectly accords with our doubling of product. And, of course, that our real-time instrument can monitor and record this increase in fluorescence after each cycle, generating an amplification plot that's more than a little useful for interpreting our data.
See how this groundbreaking technology works. Leveraging consumer technology for scientific breakthroughs Ion Torrent™ technology takes an entirely new approach to sequencing, making it faster, simpler, and more affordable than ever before. Unlike other sequencing technologies, Ion Torrent™ systems sequence DNA using a semiconductor chip, similar to the chip found in your digital camera. While the chip in your camera has a sensing layer covered with millions of pixels that translate light into digital information, an Ion chip has millions of wells covering those pixels. Whenever a nucleotide is incorporated into a single strand of DNA, a hydrogen ion is released. This is how the Ion Torrent system sequences DNA, by reading this chemical change directly in the well on the chip. In essence, each well works as the world's smallest pH meter.
Cleaning your DreamStation CPap Therapy Device See our stories of how Philips innovations are improving peoples' lives around the world at: Connect with Philips Online: - Visit Philips Sleep and Respiratory Care Website: - Find Philips Respiratory Wellness on Facebook: - Find Philips Better Sleep on Facebook: - Follow Philips Sleep and Respiratory on Twitter: - Find Philips Sleep and Respiratory on LinkedIn: - Find Philips Respiratory Showcase page on LinkedIn: - Learn Philips news:
Connect with Philips Online: - Visit Philips Sleep and Respiratory Care Website: - Find Philips Respiratory Wellness on Facebook: - Find Philips Better Sleep on Facebook: - Follow Philips Sleep and Respiratory on Twitter: - Find Philips Sleep and Respiratory on LinkedIn: - Find Philips Respiratory Showcase page on LinkedIn: - Learn Philips news:
Download the free Sanger sequencing handbook at If you have more questions on sequencing, submit your question at Let’s go back to the basics and explore the technology platform that has been regarded as the gold standard for many years. Yea, you guessed it! I am talking about Sanger Sequencing by capillary electrophoresis. Many might ask, “why is it called Sanger Sequencing?” Sanger Sequencing is named after the inventor of this ground breaking technology, Dr. Frederick Sanger, who developed this method over 40 years ago in the mid-70s. So, what are the basics of Sanger Sequencing? It all starts by having a short primer binding next to the region of interest. In the presence of the 4 nucleotides, the polymerase will extend the primer by adding on the complementary nucleotide from the template DNA strand. To find the exact composition of the DNA sequence, we need to bring this reaction to a defined stop that allows us to identify the base of the very end of this particular DNA fragment. Sanger did this by removing an oxygen atom from the ribonucleotide. Such a nucleotide is called a dideoxynucleotide. This is analogous to throwing a wrench into a gear. The polymerase enzyme can no longer add normal nucleotides onto this DNA chain. The extension has stopped and we now need to identify what it is. We identify the chain terminating nucleotide by a specific fluorescent dye, 4 specific colors to be exact. Sanger sequencing results in the formation of extension products of various lengths terminated with dideoxynucleotides at the 3′ end. The extension products are then separated by Capillary Electrophoresis or CE. The molecules are injected by an electrical current into a long glass capillary filled with a gel polymer. During CE, an electrical field is applied so that the negatively charged DNA fragments move toward the positive electrode. The speed at which a DNA fragment migrates through the medium is inversely proportional to its molecular weight. This process can separate the extension products by size at a resolution of one base. A laser excites the dye labeled DNA fragments as they pass through a tiny window at the end of the capillary. The excited dye emits a light at a characteristic wavelength that is detected by a light sensor. Software can then interpret the detected signal and translate it into a base call. When the sequencing reaction is performed in the presence of all four terminated nucleotides, you eventually get a pool of DNA fragments that are measured and separated base by base. What you will get in the end is a data file showing the sequence of the DNA in a colorful electropherogram and a text file which you can use to answer the questions you may be asking. And that in a nutshell is Sanger Sequencing.
Introducing the Philips DreamWear Full Face mask; the face of sleep apnea will never be the same. Philips DreamWear is a radical departure from traditional mask technology that was designed with patients in mind. It comes closest to feeling like you have nothing on your face. See our stories of how Philips innovations are making lives better around the world at: Connect with Philips Online: Visit Philips Sleep and Respiratory Care Website: Find Philips Respiratory Wellness on Facebook: Find Philips Better Sleep on Facebook: Follow Philips Sleep and Respiratory on Twitter: Find Philips Sleep and Respiratory on LinkedIn: Find Philips Respiratory Showcase page on LinkedIn: Learn Philips news:
Immune cells within the perilymphatic space of the inner ear of several zebrafish embryos 80 hpf showing: MIP view of two immune cells (orange), one of which has ingested dextran particles (blue), before and after AO plus deconvolution for 438 time points at 13 sec intervals; volume rendered view in another embryo, showing a migrating immune cell and a dividing endothelial cell; and tracking of the position and velocity of an immune cell in a third embryo (c.f., Fig. 6E,F, figs. S13-15). Credit: T. Liu et al./Science 2018 Read more:
Want to make sure you have good swimmers? Dr. Jesse Mills, director of the Men’s Clinic at UCLA, offers five tips for men who want to ensure their sperm is at optimal health. These are things men can do before they even have to go see a doctor. So be cool, keep moving, eat your veggies and have a cup of joe, but not too many. Learn more about the UCLA Men's Clinic at .
He codes, he writes his own programmes and he’s helping teachers to set up computers. And he’s only 8. But what could it mean when your child is ‘too smart’? The story of Seth Yee and his parents, on On The Red Dot's Wonder Kid series. READ more: SUBSCRIBE to CNA INSIDER! For more of CNA INSIDER, find us on: Instagram: Facebook: Website: Watch all 4 profiles of Wonder Kids on On The Red Dot: About the series: Four children with four exceptional gifts – a computer genius, a violin virtuoso, a star gymnast and a dazzling chess player. What is it like to be one in 100,000 or even one in a million? From friendships gained and families uprooted, it’s a fragile balance between pursuing their potential and not losing their childhood innocence. What hidden sacrifices do these wonder kids and the people around them make to fulfil their grand ambitions ? We go behind the glamour of awards and achievements and find out what it truly means to be a child prodigy.
The UCLA Alzheimer's and Dementia Care Video series provides viewers with practical tools you can use in a variety of settings to create a safe, comfortable environment both for the person with dementia and the caregiver. To learn more about the UCLA Alzheimer's and Dementia Care, please visit
On March 30th, the Large Hadron Collider has started its physics program with the first proton-proton collisions at 7Tev. Watch and share with us the excitement of the First Physics day, after 20 years of planning, construction and repairs. This clip concludes the LHCNews series.
The handbook and videos provide an introduction to cell culture, with a focus on maintaining cell health throughout the processes of culturing, freezing, thawing and passaging cells. In this video, we focus on how to passage cells.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system estimated to affect 2.3 million people worldwide. It is a chronic disease in which the immune system abnormally attacks the insulation and support around the nerve cells (myelin sheath) in the brain, spinal cord and optic nerves, causing inflammation and consequent damage. MS is a leading cause of non-traumatic disability in young people, usually striking between 20 and 40 years of age. There is no cure for MS, but research continues to better understand and treat the disease. To learn more about Roche and MS, visit . Subscribe to our YouTube channel now: Get in touch with us: Roche has been committed to improving lives since the company was founded in 1896 in Basel, Switzerland. Today, Roche creates innovative medicines and diagnostic tests that help millions of patients globally. Roche is a leader in research-focused healthcare with combined strengths in pharmaceuticals and diagnostics. Roche is the world’s largest biotech company, with truly differentiated medicines in oncology, immunology, infectious diseases, ophthalmology and neuroscience. For more information and insights visit:
Ed McKay is an inspiration, to his friends, his colleagues and anyone who ever wanted to dream big. He started his career at Johns Hopkins 15 years ago in Environmental Services and worked his way up to surgical technician. He's worked side by side with some of the world's greatest surgeons and earned the prestigious Baker King Award. His story demonstrates the partnership between a great institution and the people who make it extraordinary.
They got sentimental when thinking of Higgs - Physicists give their thoughts on the Higgs Boson: including Nobel Prize winners Gerhard 't Hooft, David Gross, George Charpak, Jerome Friedman, Murray Gell-Mann plus Vivek Sharma, Guido Tonelli and Gigi Rolandi (CMS), Eilam Gross and Joao Guimaraes da Costa (ATLAS) and theoretical physicists Guido Altarelli and John Ellis. CERN Press release: CERN experiments observe particle consistent with long-sought Higgs boson
Short educational video explaining the principle of Ion Torrent Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) Technology – how it works, and its applications use in science and medicine such as targeted sequencing in oncology.
Смотреть: "Caregiver Training: Refusal to Take Medication | UCLA Alzheimer's and Dementia Care Program" онлайн.
The UCLA Alzheimer's and Dementia Care Video series provides viewers with practical tools you can use in a variety of settings to create a safe, comfortable environment both for the person with dementia and the caregiver. To learn more about the UCLA Alzheimer's and Dementia Care, please visit
Don't put your money where your mouth is - the investigative programme Why It Matters discovers just how much bacteria is on our banknotes. For more, watch the full episode
Episode 1 in a 6-part mini documentary series, see the full series here: We asked 10 prominent scientists to share their thoughts on science and in particular the field of exosomes research. The video-series tell the story and history of this exciting new area of research, and its impact on other research fields such as cancer and immunology. The video-series also discusses the potential future therapeutic and diagnostic applications that may come from exosome research. Contributors: - Xandra Breakefield, Ph.D... Professor, Massachusetts General Hospital - Jan Lötvall, MD., Ph.D... Professor, University of Gothenburg, President of ISEV - Suresh Mohla, Ph.D... Chief (TBMB) and Division Associate Director, NIH - Esther Nolte-'t Hoen, Ph.D.. Senior Scientist, Utrecht University - Michiel Pegtel, Ph.D.... Assistant Professor, VUmc, Amsterdam - Graça Raposo-Benedetti, Ph.D. Director of Research, CNRS, Institut Curie - Phillip A. Sharp, Ph.D... Nobel Laureate, Professor, MIT - Johan Skog, Ph.D.... CSO, Exosomes Diagnostics - Dima Ter-Ovanesyan....Ph.D Student, Harvard University - Clotilde Thery, Ph.D.... Director of Research, INSERM, Institut Curie, Secretary General of ISEV Acknowledgements: Members of the research groups of Michiel Pegtel (Cancer Center Amsterdam, VUmc), Graça Raposo-Benedetti (Structure and Membrane Compartments, CNRS, Institut Curie) and Clotilde Théry (Immunity and Cancer, INSERM, Institut Curie) Special thanks to the ISEV society for their strong contribution in leading the field of exosome research forward, and to the participants at the ISEV RNA Workshop in New York City October 1st-2nd 2012 Kudos to all scientists that have the courage to follow their curiosity! If you want to learn about the exosomes-specific products available from Life Technologies:
Submit your questions at Everyone wants to know how much DNA is in their extract, but then they ask: how can I tell if my estimate is accurate? The standard curve holds the answers. A standard curve is a tool that allows us to estimate the DNA concentration of unknown samples by comparing them to standards with known DNA concentrations. In this example, the standards consist of a 10-fold dilution series ranging from 50 ng/ul down to 5 pg/ul. During each PCR cycle, the amount of fluorescent signal for each standard in the dilution seies is measured. When the fluorescent signal crosses the detection threshold the cycle number is recorded as a Ct value, or threshold cycle value. The Ct value is what ultimately is used to create the standard curve. The Ct values are inversely proportional to the concentration of DNA in the standards. The high-concentration, 50 ng/ul standard will cross the detection threshold first, generating a “low” Ct. The low-concentration, 5 pg/ul standard will take many more cycles to cross the same threshold - and therefore the Ct will be higher. The Ct values for each dilution of the standard curve are plotted on a graph, and the software generates a regression line that fits the data. Because the standards are 10-fold dilutions, we expect the change in Ct from one standard to the next to be uniform. An uneven distribution of Ct values might indicate that the dilution series was not accurately pipetted. Let’s take a look at the standard curve for a specific DNA target, the small autosomal target. The X axis is the log of the known standard concentrations. The Y axis is the Ct value of each standard. Now, Do you see the quality metrics at the bottom of the screen? Let’s review Slope, Y intercept, and R2.? The slope measures the efficiency of the PCR reaction. In a perfect world, a slope of -3.3 indicates that the PCR reaction is 100% efficient; the target DNA is doubled each cycle. Two copies become four; four become eight; and so on. The Y intercept is the expected Ct value for a 1ng/ul sample. The R2 value measures how well the regression line fits the data points. A line that fits the data points perfectly has an R2 of 1. If your data points are scattered, the R2 value for the line will be lower. The Ct values of your standards affect the slope, the Y intercept, and the R2 value. It is very important to prepare the standard dilution series carefully to ensure consistent and accurate results! Running the standards in duplicate can help ensure you have a high quality standard curve. Once your standard curve passes the metrics test, it can be used to evaluate an unknown sample! The Ct value of the unknown sample is measured, and compared to the standard curve to estimate the DNA concentration of the unknown sample. Couldn’t be simpler! That’s it for today. If you have other questions, just click on the link below. And don’t forget- when in doubt, refer Back to the Bases!
©THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, THE MINDFUL AWARENESS RESEARCH CENTER, DIANA WINSTON, AUTHOR OF ALL MEDITATIONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Learn more about the UCLA Mindful Awareness Research Center -- Additional (Optional): For an in-depth class experience of mindfulness, take one of MARC's 6-week online courses:
After visiting 30+ physicians, Ashley was diagnosed with the rare condition known as pseudotumor cerebri. She and her family turned to the experts at Johns Hopkins who worked as a team to implant a stent, a new approach to treating this condition that is typically treated with a shunt. Find out more about our experts at For appointments, Maryland residents should call 410-550-1470, and out-of-state residents should contact 1-855-884-6754.
Смотреть: "Automate Immunoprecipitation and Nucleic Acid Extraction with KingFisher™ Flex purification system" онлайн.
Learn about the system here: The KingFisher Sample Preparation System is an integrated high throughput system that provides the highest quality nucleic acid extraction and also simplifies, standardizes, and to accelerates preparation of samples derived from various sources for downstream molecular analysis. Optimize and automate your immunoprecipitation and nucleic acid and purification workflows with Thermo Scientific™ KingFisher™ systems. KingFisher instruments reduce your hands-on time while maintaining high yields and excellent reproducibility. Optimized protocols for nucleic acids (e.g. MagMax kits), immunoprecipitation and protein purification (e.g. Dynabeads and Pierce Magnetic beads) are provided. Thermo Scientific™ Bindit™ software allows you to modify our pre-written protocols or create your own to handle more applications.
Submit your question at What do you call a collection of millions of DNA fragments sharing the same short sequences on the 5’ and 3’ ends? The answer is a next generation sequencing, or NGS, library. Today, we are going to focus on the four basic steps of NGS library preparation that can be broadly applied across different preparation methods. A key step in the NGS workflow is preparing the input for sequencing, known as creating a library. An NGS library is a collection of similarly sized DNA fragments with known adapter sequences added to the 5’ and 3’ ends. A library corresponds to a single sample and multiple libraries, each with their own unique adapter sequences, can be pooled and sequenced in the same sequencing run. NGS library preparation has four general steps: 1. DNA Fragmentation or Target Selection, 2. Addition of adapter sequences, 3. Size selection, and 4. Final library quantification and QC. Let’s take a look at our lab book The first step, DNA fragmentation or Target Selection. In order to get the starting DNA into smaller pieces, isolated DNA may be fragmented using physical or enzymatic methods. These libraries are referred to as fragment libraries. Alternatively, if the sequence of specific DNA targets is known, PCR amplification of those targets may be used to produce DNA amplicons within the desired size range. These libraries are referred to as amplicon libraries. Next, specific DNA adapter sequences are annealed to the 5’ and 3’ ends of the fragmented or amplicon DNA. The double-stranded DNA adapters are approximately 20 to 40bp fragments that contain known sequences. Generally, there are two different adapter sequences that can anneal to the DNA fragments in either the 5’ or 3’ orientation. One adapter sequence contains the primer annealing site for the sequencing primer, while the second adapter sequence is generally used to anchor the DNA fragment to a surface for sequencing; for example beads or a solid surface containing a complimentary DNA sequence. Now we have our DNA fragments with known adapter sequences on either end. The next step is to select the library fragment sizes we need for our sequencing run. There are two common size selection methods, the first is a gel electrophoresis based-method, while the second is bead-based size selection method. For the gel-based method, the adapted library fragments are run on a gel to separate the fragments by size and the band corresponding to the size of interest is collected. Using the bead-based method, magnetic beads are used with varying concentrations of buffers to isolate the DNA fragment sizes of interest. Final library fragment size is important for efficient, high quality DNA sequencing downstream. Bonus, when preparing amplicon libraries, size selection is usually not necessary, as long as the PCR products were already designed to be within the desired size range. We are almost done! The last and very important step is library quantification and QC. Accurate library quantification is important for successful template preparation and sequencing. There are a few library quantification methods commonly used. The first is analysis by the BioanalyzerTM system. This method gives you both library concentration and fragment size information. The second is qPCR. This method provides the most accurate library quantification information, as it only measures amplifiable library fragments, but lacks library size information. Which method you prefer is entirely up to you (and probably what’s available in your lab). And that’s NGS library preparation in a nutshell. Of course there are variations on this theme depending on your application, for example, gene expression or DNA methylation analysis, but the fundamentals stay the same. Since your library quality dictates the success of all downstream processes from template preparation to sequencing, understanding the library preparation is important to help ensure you get the highest quality sequencing data. I hope this video was helpful on NGS library, and I am sure you’ll have more questions. Submit your question at thermofisher.com/ask and subscribe to our channel to see more videos like this. And remember, when in doubt, just Seq It Out
The handbook and videos provide an introduction to cell culture, with a focus on maintaining cell health throughout the processes of culturing, freezing, thawing and passaging cells. In this video, we focus on how to thaw cells.
Dr. Kristin Patzkowsky, a minimally invasive surgeon from the department of Gynecology and Obstetrics answers your common questions asked about endometriosis. Learn more at: Endometriosis is a benign disorder characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue (the tissue that lines the uterus) outside the uterine cavity where it becomes attached to reproductive or abdominal organs. The patches of endometrial tissue swell with blood during menstruation as if they were still in the uterus. Endometriosis is a common disorder, most prevalent between the ages of 25 and 40. Symptoms vary and are not strictly correlated with the severity of the disease; they may worsen with time, but tend to diminish during pregnancy and cease with menopause. Many women have no symptoms at all. Treatment depends on the severity of symptoms, the age of the woman, and whether she wishes to have children. Questions Answered: 1. What is endometriosis? 0:03 2. What are the symptoms of endometriosis? 0:14 3. Can endometriosis affect fertility? 1:15 4. What are the treatment options for endometriosis? 2:01 5. Can endometriosis be a recurring issue? 2:51 6. What is the difference between minimally invasive surgery and open surgery for endometriosis? 3:10 7. What type of physician should I see for surgical treatment of endometriosis? 4:23
Immunotherapy uses the body’s immune system to fight cancer. This animation explains three types of immunotherapy used to treat cancer: nonspecific immune stimulation, T-cell transfer therapy, and immune checkpoint inhibitors.
Learn more at This video is the second part of a 3-part Getting started with PCR series that shows how to set up and run a PCR experiment. The success and failure of any PCR experiment is dependent on preparation. This particular video shows the different components that go into a PCR reaction, how each component contributes to the experiment, and lastly, when to set up a master mix.
When antibiotics kill off too many good bacteria in the digestive tract during treatment of C. Diff, Fecal Microbial Transplants can help replenish bacterial balance. For more information:
Episode 2 in a 6-part mini documentary series, see the full series here: We asked 10 prominent scientists to share their thoughts on science and in particular the field of exosomes research. The video-series tell the story and history of this exciting new area of research, and its impact on other research fields such as cancer and immunology. The video-series also discusses the potential future therapeutic and diagnostic applications that may come from exosome research. Contributors: - Xandra Breakefield, Ph.D... Professor, Massachusetts General Hospital - Jan Lötvall, MD., Ph.D... Professor, University of Gothenburg, President of ISEV - Suresh Mohla, Ph.D... Chief (TBMB) and Division Associate Director, NIH - Esther Nolte-'t Hoen, Ph.D.. Senior Scientist, Utrecht University - Michiel Pegtel, Ph.D.... Assistant Professor, VUmc, Amsterdam - Graça Raposo-Benedetti, Ph.D. Director of Research, CNRS, Institut Curie - Phillip A. Sharp, Ph.D... Nobel Laureate, Professor, MIT - Johan Skog, Ph.D.... CSO, Exosomes Diagnostics - Dima Ter-Ovanesyan....Ph.D Student, Harvard University - Clotilde Thery, Ph.D.... Director of Research, INSERM, Institut Curie, Secretary General of ISEV Acknowledgements: Members of the research groups of Michiel Pegtel (Cancer Center Amsterdam, VUmc), Graça Raposo-Benedetti (Structure and Membrane Compartments, CNRS, Institut Curie) and Clotilde Théry (Immunity and Cancer, INSERM, Institut Curie) Special thanks to the ISEV society for their strong contribution in leading the field of exosome research forward, and to the participants at the ISEV RNA Workshop in New York City October 1st-2nd 2012 Kudos to all scientists that have the courage to follow their curiosity! If you want to learn about the exosomes-specific products available from Life Technologies: